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     New Zealand(YENİ ZELLANDA)

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    MesajKonu: New Zealand(YENİ ZELLANDA)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:21 am

    The Polynesian Maori reached New Zealand in about A.D. 800. In 1840, their chieftains entered into a compact with Britain, the Treaty of Waitangi, in which they ceded sovereignty to Queen Victoria while retaining territorial rights. In that same year, the British began the first organized colonial settlement. A series of land wars between 1843 and 1872 ended with the defeat of the native peoples. The British colony of New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907 and supported the UK militarily in both World Wars. New Zealand's full participation in a number of defense alliances lapsed by the 1980s. In recent years, the government has sought to address longstanding Maori grievances.
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    MesajKonu: Geri: New Zealand(YENİ ZELLANDA)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:22 am

    Geography
    About 80% of the population lives in cities; Wellington is the southernmost national capital in the world.
    Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia
    Geographic coordinates: 41 00 S, 174 00 E
    Area: total: 268,680 sq km
    land: 268,021 sq km
    water: NA
    note: includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands
    Size comparison: about the size of Colorado

    Land Boundaries: 0 km
    Coastline: 15,134 km
    Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    Climate: temperate with sharp regional contrasts
    Terrain: predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains
    Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Aoraki-Mount Cook 3,754 m
    Natural resources: natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone
    Land use: arable land: 5.54%
    permanent crops: 6.92%
    other: 87.54% (2005)
    Irrigated land: 2,850 sq km (2003)
    Natural hazards: earthquakes are common, though usually not severe; volcanic activity
    Current Environment Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; native flora and fauna hard-hit by invasive species
    International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Antarctic Seals, Marine Life Conservation
    ^Back to Top
    People
    Population: 4,173,460 (July 2008 est.)
    Age structure: 0-14 years: 20.9% (male 446,883/female 424,240)
    15-64 years: 66.5% (male 1,390,669/female 1,385,686)
    65 years and over: 12.6% (male 238,560/female 287,422) (2008 est.)
    Median age: total: 36.3 years
    male: 35.6 years
    female: 37.1 years (2008 est.)
    Population growth rate: 0.971% (2008 est.)
    Birth rate: 14.09 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Net migration rate: 2.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
    Infant mortality rate: total: 4.99 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 5.62 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 4.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
    Life expectancy at birth: total population: 80.24 years
    male: 78.33 years
    female: 82.25 years (2008 est.)
    Total fertility rate: 2.11 children born/woman (2008 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2003 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1,400 (2003 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 200 (2003 est.)
    Nationality: noun: New Zealander(s)
    adjective: New Zealand
    Ethnic groups: European 69.8%, Maori 7.9%, Asian 5.7%, Pacific islander 4.4%, other 0.5%, mixed 7.8%, unspecified 3.8% (2001 census)
    Religions: Anglican 14.9%, Roman Catholic 12.4%, Presbyterian 10.9%, Methodist 2.9%, Pentecostal 1.7%, Baptist 1.3%, other Christian 9.4%, other 3.3%, unspecified 17.2%, none 26% (2001 census)
    Languages: English (official), Maori (official), Sign Language (official)
    Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99%
    male: 99%
    female: 99% (2003 est.)
    ^Back to Top
    Government
    Country name: conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: New Zealand
    abbreviation: NZ
    Government type: parliamentary democracy
    Capital: name: Wellington
    geographic coordinates: 41 28 S, 174 51 E
    time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in March
    note: New Zealand is divided into two time zones, including Chatham Island
    Administrative divisions: 16 regions and 1 territory*; Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Canterbury, Chatham Islands*, Gisborne, Hawke's Bay, Manawatu-Wanganui, Marlborough, Nelson, Northland, Otago, Southland, Taranaki, Tasman, Waikato, Wellington, West Coast
    Dependent areas: Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
    Independence: 26 September 1907 (from UK)
    National holiday: Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840); ANZAC Day (commemorated as the anniversary of the landing of troops of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps during World War I at Gallipoli, Turkey), 25 April (1915)
    Constitution: consists of a series of legal documents, including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments, as well as The Constitution Act 1986, which is the principal formal charter; adopted 1 January 1987, effective 1 January 1987
    Legal system: based on English law, with special land legislation and land courts for the Maori; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
    Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Anand SATYANAND (since 23 August 2006)
    head of government: Prime Minister John KEY (since 19 November 2008); Deputy Prime Minister Bill ENGLISH (since 19 November 2008)
    cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister
    elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
    Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives - commonly called Parliament (usually 120 seats; 69 members elected by popular vote in single-member constituencies including 7 Maori constituencies, and 51 proportional seats chosen from party lists; to serve three-year terms)
    elections: last held 8 November 2008 (next to be held not later than 27 November 2011)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NP 44.9%, NZLP 34%, Green Party 6.7%, NZ First 4%, ACT New Zealand 3.7%, Maori 2.4%, Progressive 0.9%, UF 0.9%, other 6.6%; seats by party - NP 58, NZLP 43, Green Party 9, ACT New Zealand 5, Maori 5, Progressive 1, UF 1
    note: results of 2008 election saw the total number of seats increase to 122
    Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; High Court; note - judges appointed by the Governor-General
    Political parties and leaders: ACT New Zealand [Rodney HIDE]; Green Party [Jeanette FITZSIMONS]; Maori Party [Tariana TURIA and Pita SHARPLES]; National Party or NP [John KEY]; New Zealand First Party or NZ First [Winston PETERS]; New Zealand Labor Party or NZLP [Phil GOFF]; Progressive Party [James (Jim) ANDERTON]; United Future or UF [Peter DUNNE]
    Political pressure groups and leaders: Women's Electoral Lobby or WEL
    other: apartheid groups; civil rights groups; farmers groups; Maori; nuclear weapons groups; women's rights groups
    International organization participation: ADB, ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986), APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CP, EAS, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, NAM (guest), NSG, OECD, OPCW, PCA, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Roy N. FERGUSON
    chancery: 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 328-4800
    FAX: [1] (202) 667-5227
    consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador William P. McCORMICK
    embassy: 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington
    mailing address: P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1, APO AP 96531-1034
    telephone: [64] (4) 462-6000
    FAX: [64] (4) 499-0490
    consulate(s) general: Auckland
    Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Anand SATYANAND (since 23 August 2006) head of government: Prime Minister John KEY (since 19 November 2008); Deputy Prime Minister Bill ENGLISH (since 19 November 2008) cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
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    MesajKonu: Geri: New Zealand(YENİ ZELLANDA)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:22 am

    Economy
    Over the past 20 years the government has transformed New Zealand from an agrarian economy dependent on concessionary British market access to a more industrialized, free market economy that can compete globally. This dynamic growth has boosted real incomes - but left behind some at the bottom of the ladder - and broadened and deepened the technological capabilities of the industrial sector. Per capita income has risen for nine consecutive years and reached $28,500 in 2008 in purchasing power parity terms. Debt-driven consumer spending drove robust growth in the first half of the decade, helping fuel a large balance of payments deficit that posed a challenge for economic managers. Inflationary pressures caused the central bank to raise its key rate steadily from January 2004 until it was among the highest in the OECD in 2007-2008; international capital inflows attracted to the high rates further strengthened the currency and housing market, however, aggravating the current account deficit. The economy fell into recession in 2008, and in line with global peers, the central bank has cut interest rates aggressively; the new government is responding with plans to raise productivity growth and develop infrastructure.
    GDP (purchasing power parity): $118.9 billion (2008 est.)
    GDP (official exchange rate): $135.7 billion (2008 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate: 0.6% (2008 est.)
    GDP - per capita (PPP): $28,500 (2008 est.)
    GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4.4%
    industry: 26%
    services: 69.6% (2008 est.)
    Labor force: 2.26 million (2008 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 7%
    industry: 19%
    services: 74% (2006 est.)
    Unemployment rate: 4% (2008 est.)
    Population below poverty line: NA%
    Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: %NA
    highest 10%: %NA
    Distribution of family income - Gini index: 36.2 (1997)
    Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.3% (2008 est.)
    Investment (gross fixed): 23.6% of GDP (2008 est.)
    Budget: revenues: $55.1 billion
    expenditures: $54.66 billion (2008 est.)
    Public debt: 22.9% of GDP (2008 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    Industries: food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining
    Industrial production growth rate:
    Electricity - production: 42.41 billion kWh (2007 est.)
    Electricity - consumption: 38.93 billion kWh (2006 est.)
    Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
    Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
    Oil - production: 47,850 bbl/day (2007 est.)
    Oil - consumption: 158,400 bbl/day (2007 est.)
    Oil - exports: 14,570 bbl/day (2005)
    Oil - imports: 137,300 bbl/day (2005)
    Oil - proved reserves: 55 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)
    Natural gas - production: 4.573 billion cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - consumption: 4.572 billion cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - proved reserves: 29.67 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)
    Current account balance: -$9.047 billion (2008 est.)
    Exports: $29.53 billion (2008 est.)
    Exports - commodities: dairy products, meat, wood and wood products, fish, machinery
    Exports - partners: Australia 22%, US 11.5%, Japan 9.2%, China 5.3%, UK 4.6% (2007)
    Imports: $31.11 billion (2008 est.)
    Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles and aircraft, petroleum, electronics, textiles, plastics
    Imports - partners: Australia 20.7%, China 13.4%, US 9.7%, Japan 9.5%, Singapore 4.9%, Germany 4.7% (2007)
    Economic aid - donor: ODA, $259 million (2006)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $15.25 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    Debt - external: $59.08 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $72.41 billion (2008 est.)
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
    Market value of publicly traded shares: $47.45 billion (31 December 2007)
    Currency (code): New Zealand dollar (NZD)
    Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZD) per US dollar - 1.4151 (2008 est.), 1.3811 (2007), 1.5408 (2006), 1.4203 (2005), 1.5087 (2004)
    Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March note: this is the fiscal year for tax purposes
    ^Back to Top
    Communications
    Telephones in use: 1.706 million (2007)
    Cellular Phones in use: 4.245 million (2007)
    Telephone system: general assessment: excellent domestic and international systems
    domestic: NA
    international: country code - 64; the Southern Cross submarine cable system provides links to Australia, Fiji, and the US; satellite earth stations - 8 (1 Inmarsat - Pacific Ocean, 7 other)
    Radio broadcast stations: AM 124, FM 290, shortwave 4 (1998)
    Television broadcast stations: 41 (plus about 700 repeaters) (1997)
    Internet country code: .nz
    Internet hosts: 1.72 million (2008)
    Internet users: 3.36 million (2007)
    ^Back to Top
    Transportation
    Airports: 121 (2007)
    Airports (paved runways): total: 41
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
    914 to 1,523 m: 26
    under 914 m: 1 (2007)
    Airports (unpaved runways): total: 80
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 31
    under 914 m: 46 (2007)
    Pipelines: condensate 331 km; gas 1,896 km; liquid petroleum gas 172 km; oil 288 km; refined products 260 km (2007)
    Railways: total: 4,128 km
    narrow gauge: 4,128 km 1.067-m gauge (506 km electrified) (2006)
    Roadways: total: 93,576 km
    paved: 61,564 km (includes 172 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 32,012 km (2006)
    Merchant marine: total: 13
    by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 2, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2
    foreign-owned: 3 (Australia 1, Germany 1, South Africa 1)
    registered in other countries: 5 (Antigua and Barbuda 2, Cook Islands 1, France 1, UK 1) (2008)
    Ports and terminals: Auckland, Lyttelton, Marsden Point, Tauranga, Wellington, Whangarei
    ^Back to Top
    Military

    Military branches: New Zealand Defense Force (NZDF): New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand Air Force (2009)
    Military service age and obligation: 17 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed until the age of 18; no conscription (2008)
    Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 1,009,298
    females age 16-49: 997,134 (2008 est.)
    Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 833,073
    females age 16-49: 822,807 (2008 est.)
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